Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation: Empowering Homeownership in the United State

The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), commonly known as Freddie Mac, plays a crucial role in the United States’ housing market. Established in 1970, FHLMC is a government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) designed to provide stability and liquidity to the mortgage market, thereby increasing access to affordable homeownership for millions of Americans.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
    • Definition of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC)
    • Purpose and role of FHLMC in the housing market
  2. History and Background
    • Founding of FHLMC
    • The need for secondary mortgage market players
    • FHLMC’s evolution and growth
  3. How FHLMC Works
    • Purchasing and securitizing mortgages
    • Issuing mortgage-backed securities
    • Role in reducing interest rates and promoting homeownership
  4. FHLMC’s Impact on the Housing Market
    • Increased liquidity in the mortgage market
    • Stabilizing interest rates
    • Expanding access to affordable housing
  5. FHLMC vs. Fannie Mae
    • Comparison with the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA)
    • Differences in structure and operations
  6. FHLMC and the 2008 Financial Crisis
    • FHLMC’s involvement in the subprime mortgage crisis
    • Government intervention and restructuring
  7. Current Role and Regulations
    • FHLMC in the post-crisis era
    • Oversight and regulation by government agencies
  8. Advantages and Criticisms of FHLMC
    • Benefits of a liquid secondary mortgage market
    • Concerns over moral hazard and taxpayer risks
  9. FHLMC’s Future and Challenges
    • Outlook for the organization
    • Addressing housing market shifts and emerging issues
  10. Conclusion


FHLMC is a vital part of the secondary mortgage market, which enables financial institutions to buy and sell mortgage-backed securities (MBS) to investors. This process infuses more funds into the lending system, making it easier for banks and other mortgage lenders to offer home loans to qualified borrowers.

History and Background

The need for FHLMC arose due to the surge in demand for mortgages following World War II. As the housing market expanded, financial institutions faced challenges in holding large volumes of long-term fixed-rate mortgages. To address this, the government stepped in and created GSEs like FHLMC to buy mortgages from lenders, bundle them into securities, and sell these securities to investors.

How FHLMC Works

FHLMC purchases conforming mortgages, mainly from banks, credit unions, and other lenders. It bundles these mortgages into MBS, which are then sold to investors in the secondary market. This process provides mortgage lenders with additional capital to lend to more potential homebuyers.

Furthermore, FHLMC assumes the credit risk of the mortgages it acquires, thereby encouraging lenders to extend mortgages to borrowers with lower down payments or credit scores. This approach helps promote homeownership among diverse populations.

FHLMC’s Impact on the Housing Market

By providing a liquid market for mortgages, FHLMC ensures that banks and lenders have the confidence to issue more home loans. This liquidity stabilizes interest rates and allows for the availability of affordable mortgage options to a wider range of borrowers. Additionally, FHLMC’s presence in the market cushions the housing sector from extreme fluctuations, which is particularly important during economic downturns.

FHLMC vs. Fannie Mae

FHLMC is often compared to another GSE, the Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), or Fannie Mae. While both entities share similar goals, they operate independently and have distinct roles in the secondary mortgage market. While Fannie Mae primarily focuses on buying mortgages from larger retail banks, FHLMC targets smaller lenders and thrifts, enhancing competition and diversity in the market.

FHLMC and the 2008 Financial Crisis

During the 2008 financial crisis, FHLMC, like many other financial institutions, faced significant challenges. Its exposure to subprime mortgages resulted in substantial losses. As a result, the government had to intervene and place FHLMC under conservatorship, leading to significant reforms in the organization’s operations and risk management.

Current Role and Regulations

In the post-crisis era, FHLMC operates under stricter regulations and oversight. The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) supervises its activities to ensure compliance with established guidelines. The goal is to prevent excessive risk-taking and maintain the stability of the housing market.

Advantages and Criticisms of FHLMC

FHLMC’s role in providing liquidity and stability to the mortgage market has numerous advantages. It ensures that homebuyers have access to affordable mortgages, stimulates economic growth, and supports financial institutions. However, critics argue that the implicit government backing of GSEs like FHLMC may create moral hazard and expose taxpayers to potential risks.

FHLMC’s Future and Challenges

Looking ahead, FHLMC will need to adapt to changing housing market dynamics and evolving economic conditions. It will also face challenges in addressing affordability concerns and catering to the needs of diverse homebuyers. Nonetheless, FHLMC’s enduring commitment to its mission remains a crucial driver of its future success.


The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or Freddie Mac, has played a vital role in supporting the American dream of homeownership. Through its involvement in the secondary mortgage market, FHLMC has provided liquidity, stability, and affordability to millions of homebuyers. Despite past challenges, FHLMC continues to evolve and adapt, ensuring that the housing market remains resilient and accessible to all.


1.What is FHLMC?

FHLMC stands for the Federal domestic loan enterprise, additionally called Freddie Mac. It is a government-sponsored enterprise that plays a crucial role in the secondary mortgage market in the United States.

2.When was FHLMC established?

FHLMC was established in 1970 to increase liquidity and stability in the mortgage market and promote homeownership.

3.How does FHLMC operate?

FHLMC purchases mortgages from lenders, bundles them into mortgage-backed securities (MBS), and sells these securities to investors, thereby providing more capital for lenders to issue home loans.

4.What is the difference between FHLMC and Fannie Mae?

FHLMC and Fannie Mae are both government-sponsored enterprises with similar goals. However, FHLMC primarily targets smaller lenders, while Fannie Mae focuses on larger retail banks.

5.What impact did FHLMC have during the 2008 financial crisis?

FHLMC faced challenges during the 2008 financial crisis due to exposure to subprime mortgages, leading to government intervention and restructuring.




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